Waste Spark Circuit  |

Hydrogen Hot Rod

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We can offer complete units or parts ,  Assembled engines require multi orders .

as time passes things spread and become easier we invite you all to use the info and build accordingly.

2 Ways

BOTH WITH FUEL INJECTION Zero ambient air

1 GTNT Explosive

( if we adjust the burn rate of this way it is same as gasoline  so no timing modifications  are required.) positive ground

2 HHO Implosive ,

both  way need zero air intake. or minimum and air must be positive

Waste Spark HHO Getting rid

4 Stroke Conversion to HHO Implosion 2 Stroke Explained. Conversion of the 4 stroke internal combustion engine to a new way of doing things.

 

Pure HHO  ignited in a vaccum turns back to water by an implosion from 1800 parts to 1 part ratio (1800:1). In doing so this sudden change at ignition becomes an implosion in a vacuum.

 

This video has 3 animations of... 1. the 4 stroke engine run on petroleum/gasoline. 2. the 4 stroke Internal Combustion Engine converted to 2 stroke Internal Implosion Engine to run on pure HHO, having 5 distinct cycles... i) Intake ii) Decompression (more Vacuum) iii)

 

Firing iv) Implosion (power cycle [most of stroke]) v) Exhaust 3. Both animations side by side of similar cycles, slowed and paused to catch up to the other.

 

 GTNT is Explosive for of HHO and must be cut with EGR.

Waste Spark HHO Getting rid
Waste Spark HHO Getting rid
Waste Spark HHO Getting rid

Basic Waste Spark

Circuit Rail

Order  Parts

Hall Sensor Circuit Waste Spark Timing conversion
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  
CDI Ignition Circuit Waste Spark Timing Spark Conversion
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  
Timing Calibrate
Circuit
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  
110v/220v to 12v 9XD Circuit  Waste Spark 
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  
Ignition Coil  Waste Spark Timing conversion
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  
Complete Rail Circuit
Timing conversion
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  

Advanced Optional Features  Waste Spark Circuit 

 

Engine Options

Several design of Genset are available and also being further expanded. 

In order to AVOID future misunderstandings, I decided to write this overview/explanation

but first, I wish to make some VERY IMPORTANT statements and I ask ALL readers:

Please make sure you UNDERSTAND them!

The VOLUME and QUALITY of   GTNT will depend almost ENTIRELY on what kind of on demand gas system is used. 

INTENTION (with the numerous building blocks of the ECU) is to provide anyone who is willing to ‘get their hands dirty’ with the necessary CONTROL ELECTRONICS to achieve their goal.

 IF we are to use the old, rather crude and VERY inefficient (around 26%) Internal Combustion Engine at all, we need to provide it with ignition sparks at the correct times, supply fuel (in this case, GTNT) at the correct times and in correct volumes.

Further, the fuel pressure needs to be held steady (pressure regulation) and the power required to create the GTNT also needs to be supplied AND controlled (limited).

The need for all this control is INDEPENDENT of the method used for generating the required volume of GTNT  In other words, REGARDLESS of which method of GTNT generation is employed, the supply & controls described above are ESSENTIAL. However, you have probably noticed that I offer additional circuits as well, not absolutely necessary but desirable for a smooth working control system and power back up (for example: automatic battery charger circuit).

There is also a convenient control panel where all adjustment are made and pressure, current and voltage levels are SET and DISPLAYED.

Note that I choose the name Engine Control Unit (ECU) deliberately as its functions are similar to that of the existing systems used by car manufacturers. However, all unnecessary functions of the ‘standard’ ECU have been left out! On the other hand, its functions are expanded to include the power supply AND control to create the FUEL itself, GTNT All circuit sections are mainly ANALOG, using common, cheap and readily available components. (NO ‘microprocessors’, NO complex software programming!)

News

1. Control panel circuit diagram, pcb layout and control box description

2. Infra red transmitter & receiver circuits used by the two stage Voltrolysis 

water refilling system

3. Hall switch circuit with a buffer stage which eliminates RF interference pick-up! 

Features Include 
- Auto Refill
- Auto Start 
- Fuel Injector
- TDC Timing Adjust 
- Auto Rpm Adjust
- Auto Gas Pressure Start 
- Battery Charger 
- Saftey Pressure Cut off 
- Ir INfra Red Remote Start
- 5kw to 10 Kw of Power in 110v or 220 v 50hz.60hz 
- Voltrolysis Unit and Control 
- No Salts or Electrolytes 
- Voltage Controllers 
- Innovative Low Amp Production of Fuel Gas 
- MIl Spec Connectors Water Proof 
- Robust Portable Design 
- Waste Spark Mitigation 
- CDI Ignition 
- Low Maintenance
- Easy and Automatic Operation
- Optional Timer 
- Opation PCL Panel with 5 Meter Extension Lead

Special thanks to Les Banki

and the worlds people in the Hydrogen on Demand Industry. 

 

All of whom that have helped share to us through him and through other means .

 

Which allows this page to exist for making sharing and supporting the basic understanding shown in these methods to run engine on water fuels.

Daniel Donatelli

Special Note Some names reference and pictures have been modified to streamline and focus the years of knowledge presented in this page specifically.

 

Designs are not just Analog they are Pulse Width Proportional hybrid
Analog/Digital.

 

If one can translate a control system to an entirely linear system
then one can model it entirely as control sequences and pulse-proportional
modules.

 

(PID proportional control is actually pulse-proportional where the circuit
attempts to learn one important proportionality hidden variable of the system by
operational trial and error. Not required here.)

If one can translate control entirely to linear systems then one can ignore the
non-linear control laws which most often result in the more complex differential
equations intermediates.

 Efficiency calculations can then be looked at as linear
equations.

 

Somewhat along the same lines with the system in question.  What I hear you saying is;
"Get the subsystem function from whatever the source you can, over unity comes with it.

 

Then carefully construct a demand control structure so that as the next subsystem raises
vs lowers it's energy demand, the current subsystem raises or lower it's demand in response."

 

Which make the chain efficiency more or less constant by PWP means.

 

Try to get the HydrOdxy to stay at a constant pressure so the proportioning injector can accurately
control how much hydrogen is injected into the engine manifold based in energy demand.

Avoid those subsystems that attempt to run at constant fixed power level then behave
very inefficiently at demand limits.

---

Ok..Thanks. You've made something very valuable available to us here.

Thank you very much for your kind words and even more thanks for your SUPERB analysis!

While highly "technical", I sincerely hope that your analysis does not fly above too many heads here!

 THE CIRCUIT LIST

1kw to 10 kw Genset

1. Hall switch – tiny pcb, mounted on the engine. With a small permanent magnet attached to the exhaust valve’s ‘rocker arm’, it supplies pulses to the Ignition/Injection control module. These pulses indicate the piston’s position in the engine’s work cycle.

2. Capacitor Discharge Ignition (CDI) module – when connected to an ignition coil, it creates the required high voltage (20,000V+) to fire the spark plug.

3. Ignition & Injection control module – supplies the control pulses to the CDI module (WHEN to deliver the sparks) and the drive pulses to the injection solenoid.

4. Automatic RPM control PCB 1 and PCB 2 – automatically brings engine speed from start-up to the correct RPM where the generator supplies approx. 240V with a frequency of 50Hz.

5.  Feed-back control loop – to maintain a STEADY frequency (50Hz) and voltage (240V) output with varying loads.

6. EGR Exhaust Gas Recycle  - No Circuit manual setting  to maintain a slower burn speed for the hydrogen mixture and reduce the amount of fuel needed. 

7. Auto start – simple circuit which activates the remote control for 3 seconds to start the generator when the set gas pressure is reached.

8. Pressure regulator module – decides the desired pressure ‘scale’ (PSI, kPA or whatever), Sets and displays the pressure limit and continuously monitors and displays (on the control panel) the actual pressure.

9. Battery charger – automatic charger, used to maintain FULL charge AT ALL TIMES on a stand-by battery which will be necessary once mains power is no longer connected. (for re-start after maintenance stops) 8Power supply (regulator) module – supplies +12V-1, +12V-2, -12V, +5V and -5V to the various modules and sensors.

10. Water level sensor & pump driver 1 – used to automatically detect the minimum water level in the electrolyzer unit and refill to the set maximum level when necessary.used to detect the minimum (Danger!) water level in the flash-back arrestor and SHUTS DOWN the electrolyzer power supply! Can also be used (with a second pump) for automatic re-fill  

11.  Saftey Circuit

 

12. Relay board – a universal AC/DC 30A relay with a 12V DC coil, transistor driver and indicator LED. Can be configured for either start-up/run or for general HIGH power switching and is used mainly with the timer & timer interphase circuit.

13. Timer & timer interphase module – while NOT essential, it is VERY ‘handy’, particularly for REPEATED experiments. It eliminates time measuring errors and a lot of ‘guess work’. Also eliminates large mechanical power switches! It can also be used to stop the engine/generator after a pre-set time (up to 24 hours!) ''' Test oscillator''' – it is powered up ONLY during set-up (when the engine is not turning there are NO pulses from the Hall switch) it provides the pulses needed for testing.

However, since this oscillator is NOT used during normal operation, if desired, it could be used to flash the LED which indicates power SHUT DOWN to the electrolyzer in the event the flash-back arrestor’s water level drops too LOW.

14. Control panel – See circuit description for the functions which can be SET and DISPLAYED.

Closing notes:

Once again, as indicated in this overview, not all circuits are being used at the same time

Summary 

Well, just about every engine BRAND and MODEL is different. Some may be able to be modified like that above, some won’t. And so, here is the BIG question:

Fit a small magnet to the exhaust valve’s rocker arm, attach the tiny Hall switch pcb to the engine block and then turn a potentiometer on the control panel to set your desired ignition point, continuously variable +/- 45° from TDC, while the engine is running!

 CDI system draws only 0.5A. MAXIMUM power draw is 6W!! 

Voltolysis Cell

9XD   –Power Control circuit  dc power to 9xb Takes 110v or 220 v and turns it into dc 12v

9XB   –Voltrolysis Circuit Driver Make a Special Signal for the Voltrolysis Cell

Switch –Controls Ac into and Variac and than DC Voltrolysis into cell ( Gates the Pwm)

                with electron extraction

 

Variac -Variac controls power to switch  and voltage levels

Choke - Bifilar Choke Restrict amps and allows voltage to take over doing work. 

Voltrolysis Cell - Voltrolysis Cell 9 tube 16 inch to 18 inch 7 LPM of Gas 

Inline Flash Arrestor Wittgas Filter/flash arrestor / check valve 

1. The Hall Switch

 

Ignition system for small engines running

on GTNT ONLY  It should be obvious that with GTNT as the ONLY fuel, the use of 2 stroke engines are ruled out since they require oil to be mixed with their fuel for lubrication.

Therefore, only 4 stroke engines will be considered in this brief.

First, some engine data.

The crank shaft on a 4 stroke engine turns twice (720º) for every ‘work’ cycle. Since most (if not all) small engine designs use a magnet on the fly wheel (which is mounted on the crankshaft) to generate the ignition sparks, 2 sparks are delivered for every work cycle.

 

The second spark (which is delivered during the exhaust stroke) is NOT needed and so it is called “waste spark”. With hydrocarbon fuels it is harmless.

However, with GTNT ONLY, this “waste spark” MUST be eliminated.With hydrocarbon fuels, ignition usually takes place around 8º before TDC to allow some atomization of the fuel before the actual ‘explosion’, which occurs approximately 10º after TDC.

If GTNT is ignited at ANY point before the piston has reached TDC, the explosion takes place at that INSTANT. (There is NO delay or atomization here since it ‘burns’ about 1000 times faster than hydrocarbon fuels and it could be said that it is not ‘burning’ but exploding!)

 

The force of the explosion instantly tries to push the piston DOWN when it is still trying to come to the top to complete its compression stroke!  That is most undesirable!

When the ignition is delayed (retarded) to the point where the explosion usually occurs with hydrocarbon fuels (around 10º after TDC) then the piston’s downward movement is reinforced and useful work is gained.

Now, consider what would happen if the waste spark was NOT eliminated. As stated above, the crankshaft revolves twice for every ‘work’ cycle.

 

(The first revolution covers the intake and compression stroke and the second one the power and exhaust stroke.) Thus, the second spark (‘waste spark’) occurs just before (the same degree of advance as the wanted spark, about 8º) before TDC at the end of the exhaust stroke.

But when the ignition pulse is delayed to be after TDC, the waste spark will occur at the beginning of a new ‘cycle’, where the intake valve has just started to open.

So now, with a slightly open valve there is an open path to the fuel line (Hydroxy), and there comes a spark! Guess what happens… Guaranteed back fire!

And I can assure you that even the most minute opening will allow the ‘flame front’ to propagate back to the supply line. How do I know? Experience. Lots of it.

Further,   “flash-back arrestor”, since that is their true role.

Stopping flash backs traveling back to your Voltrolysis Unit and DESTROY it, by all means, ignore the advice. Not only will you DESTROY your Voltrolysis but very likely injure or even KILL yourself and/or others!

An example of engine calculations:

I bought a new, 118cc, one cylinder, 4 stroke petrol engine for GTNT experiments. Its rated max. output is 4 horsepower (2960W) at 3600RPM. For the ease of calculations, lets round up the capacity to 120cc (0.12L) This is the maximum volume of air/fuel mixture it can suck in during its intake cycle.

As stated before, the engine’s ‘work’ cycle number is half the crankshaft revolution.

Thus, at 3600RPM, the number of fuel intakes is 1800/minute. 1800 x 0.12L = 216L/minute

However, as only 1% of QUALITY GTNT(mixed with 99% of air) is needed to obtain the same power as petrol, this 120cc engine should require only 2.16L/minute of GTNT to run at 3600RPM!! (Naturally, it would require less at lower speeds. It remains to be seen if it will require more under full load than this calculated volume.)

Now a few notes about the necessary ignition delay and how to achieve it.

In one article it was suggested that one could use a 555 ICto delay the ignition pulse. Yes, that could be done but it would only be correct at ONE speed.

 

The reason is obvious:

Ignition advance/delay is related to piston position, NOT time. It is expressed in ‘degrees’ but for hydrocarbon fuels it is varied slightly with engine speed. (due to its relatively slow burning) With GTNT ignition will take place at the same ‘degree’, (same position of the piston) regardless of engine speed.

 

At this stage, a couple of things are clear already:

One: on my test engine (and I dare say on most, it not all, small engines) it is not possible (meaning: NOT practical) to eliminate the ‘waste sparks’.

Two, there is NO provision for ignition timing adjustments, neither mechanical, nor electronic.

In other words, the existing ignition systems used on small engines are USELESS for GTNT. We need a NEW electronic ignition system, complete with ADJUSTABLE delay.

So how can that be done?

Again, two revolutions of the crankshaft is 720º (two circles but one ‘work cycle’).

The camshaft, (controlling the valves) however, turns only ONCE, which is 360º.

In electronic terms, that is 100%.

We want to delay the ignition timing from where it is now, say, from 8º before TDC to 10º after TDC. That is a delay of 18º.

The equation is: 360 : 100 = 18 : X Re-arranging it: 360X = 1800, X = 5

In other words, 18º is 5% of 360º.

We need to delay our original ignition pulse by 5%, irrespective of frequency. (the ‘frequency’ here is the engine’s revolution)

The above example serves to illustrate the difference between the ‘old’ and the ‘new’ settings, assuming that the degree settings relate to the camshaft revolution, 360º.

However, as I understand it, the ignition advance/retard degrees are usually expressed in terms of crankshaft degrees (720° - two revolutions of the crankshaft)

In that case, the above percentage of 5% is halved. Then, 18º is 2.5% of 720º

Since we need a NEW ignition system, this ‘delay’ will no longer relate to the ‘old’ setting. A new signal is taken from a sensor (Hall switch) mounted on the engine, detecting the intake (or exhaust) valve’s position.

 

Using the signal from this sensor, the ignition spark could be made to occur anywhere but we want it approx. 10º (or more) after TDC (adjustable within a few degrees)

Of course, our reference is still TDC.

When we express all that in electronic signal terms, the intake stroke (piston travels from TDC to BDC) is ¼ of the engine’s work cycle, which is 25% of our wave form. (90º of the work cycle and 180º of crankshaft rotation)

If we transform the delays from degrees to percentage, we get the following figures:

10º ATDC is a delay of ~1.39%

25º “ ~3.47%

So, if we want the adjustment range of 10º - 25º, the percentage difference is 2.08%.

[We can also calculate the elapsed time this translates to, for any given speed. For example: at 3600RPM, the ‘frequency’ is 30Hz. One period is 1/30 = 0.0333sec. Thus, a 1.39% delay means that the piston has traveled (from TDC) for 463.3µs to reach the position of 10º ATDC (relating to crankshaft revolution)]

One simple way to implement these delays is to use a PWM (Pulse Width Modulator) circuit, which is my preferred choice. (How this is done will be described in detail in a technical “circuit description”.)

It needs to be pointed out that the ignition system for GTNT ONLY (not just a booster) will be very different from ignition systems for hydrocarbon fuels.

It will be significantly simpler.

There will be

  • NO “speed mapping”,

  • NO “load mapping”,

  • NO retard/advance change with engine RPM,

  • NO rich/lean mixture setting,

  • NO cold start setting,

  • NO “knock sensor”,

  • NO fuel/air temperature sensor,

  • NO Oxygen sensor, etc., etc., (“modern” engines are full of all that rubbish!)

  • NO need for high energy sparks, multiple sparks, etc.

Further, there will be NO such thing as UNBURNED fuel remaining in the cylinders!!

In short; when we get to the larger engines (cars), the first thing we have to do is to rip out the “computer” and install our own system, incorporating electronic injection as well

 

. (Perhaps another option could be to completely re-program the ‘computer’, provided that one could obtain the original programming software from the manufacturer, which, I would say, is HIGHLY unlikely!)

I am in favor of electronic injection (but ONLY for GTNT ) for two reasons:

1. I reason that if we allow GTNT  to flow continuously, some of it may disappear during the other ¾ of the engine’s work cycle. (the intake stroke is only ¼ cycle)

2. If GTNT is ALWAYS present in the intake manifold, we may risk a damaging back fire.

I am aiming at a mainly analog design, using parts available everywhere and are dirt cheap!

Should a fault occur, it will be quick, easy and cheap to repair.

Hall STIM Test  Circuit
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  

1.1 The Hall

STIM Test Oscillator

 

Important notes about the Ignition & Injection control circuit and Test Oscillator

While this control circuit is relatively simple, testing and adjustments DO require some test equipment AND a certain degree of knowledge in electronics.

 

Unless you have both, (or know someone who does and is willing to help you) you should NOT attempt to duplicate this circuit.

If you decide to go ahead, you should be aware of the following:

Unlike the CDI module (which creates the ignition sparks), this Ignition/Injection control circuit cannot be tested/adjusted without a dual trace oscilloscope !

Even if you buy a ready made board, it may still need to be re-adjusted (perhaps only slightly) to suit your particular engine type!

The reason is that the position of the pulses delivered by the Hall switch depends on how and where the activating magnet is attached to the engine.

This design is based on Hall switch US2881UA, made by Melexis.

It has very high sensitivity and is Bipolar.

 

That means both polarity (N & S) of the magnet can be used for switching but that too will affect the pulse position slightly. (However, other types of Hall switches can also be used, with or without modifications.)

For the above reasons, the EXACT pulse position in the engine’s working cycle can only be determined by electronic measurements when everything is in place and the engine is turning! (by hand or by starter motor)

If all this appears to be somewhat complicated, well, it is!

But there is more.

 

The pulse input circuit has a relatively high input impedance (determined by R10, 100k). If the Hall sensor end of a long wire is left open (not terminated) it is prone to pick up interference which upsets operation.

 

(For example, should it pick up mains hum (50Hz), it may deliver sparks at mains frequency rate, without the engine turning!)

 

Once the Hall sensor is connected, everything is fine since it has a LOW impedance output. Still, I suggest you keep the connecting cable (3 wires) to the Hall sensor as short as practical. Shielded cable is recommended.

For set-up & testing purposes, the pulses normally coming from the Hall switch must be substituted with some other signal source.

To eliminate the need for a dedicated pulse generator, I am offering a very simple design of a 4046 (PLL) based square wave oscillator.

 

(VCO) (Note: It does not have to be low duty cycle pulse since the input of the control circuit ONLY responds to the RISING EDGE of the waveform.)

I choose to put this simple circuit on a separate (small) circuit board and it is intended to be PERMANENTLY attached to the system but only connected (powered up) during set-up and testing.

 

There is not much to be said about this very basic circuit but perhaps I should mention that its frequency range is restricted to approx. 1Hz - 40Hz.

The restricted range also eliminates the possibility of setting incorrect frequencies.

 

This brief explanation may assist those who are not familiar with Capacitor Discharge Ignition.

A capacitor (usually about 0.5 – 2uF) is charged to about 300 – 350V. The formula for the stored energy in each charge is: E=1/2·C·V²

In words: the energy (E, in Joules) = capacitance (C, in Farad) multiplied by the voltage (V) across the capacitor, squared, multiplied by 0.5 (or divided by two, same thing)

For example: in the CDI design I am presenting here, the capacitor is 1uF. It is charged to 330V before it is allowed to discharge.

 

The stored energy (E) in each discharge is: 1/2·1·330² = 0.05445 joules or 54.45 mjoules. [Incidentally, the required minimum spark energy for Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) is said to be about 25 mjoules. (millijoule = 1/1000 joule)] As you can see, a 1uF capacitor delivers more than twice that minimum.

Of coarse, lowering the voltage decreases the energy. (AND also the average charging power required!) In case the capacitor is charged to only 300V (which will still deliver at least 20,000V to the spark plug), the energy in each charge is 45mjoules.

 

(Still almost twice the claimed minimum.)

Again, note that the voltage (V) in the formula is squared. This means that even a relatively small change in the voltage (increase or decrease) results in a significant increase or decrease of stored energy. However, keep in mind that HydrOxy requires considerably LESS spark energy.

(Even a very low energy electrostatic discharge spark is sufficient to ignite HydrOxy!)

Capacitor Discharge Ignition differs significantly from the well known (and old!) ‘Kettering’ system. Instead of feeding the primary winding of the ignition coil with LOW voltage (12 – 14V) and HIGH current (5 -10A), HIGH voltage (300 – 350V) and LOW current is dumped into the primary winding from a charged capacitor. Thus, the POWER requirement of the CDI system is only a fraction of the Kettering system!

 

The design I am presenting here uses about 6W while the Kettering type ignition use 50 – 120W, depending on the design. The above mentioned 6W power consumption is for a system requiring a maximum of 50 discharges per second which corresponds to 6000RPM for a ONE cylinder engine.

Naturally, for multi cylinder engines the power consumption will increase somewhat as the number of charge/discharge cycles increase.

The high voltage (300 – 350V) needed for a CDI system is obtained by using a DC – DC converter. There are several types of DC – DC converters but all of them use an inductor or transformer of some sort. Such a transformer (or inductor) usually has to be custom designed. All designers face this problem. Most (if not all) manufacturers are not willing to design/make just a few pieces. Unless one is prepared to order large quantities, they are NOT interested. Thus, the cost of any new design is very much an issue!

There is a very good reason for telling you all this. Everyone who intends to duplicate this circuit needs the following information:

While investigating several options, I discovered that several types of commercially made DC – DC converters are available to power CFL’s (Compact Fluorescent Light). One of these little beauties are sold here by Oatley Electronics for a grand sum of \$4.00!! www.oatleyelectronics.com (one could hardly get a transformer for that price!)

But there is a catch. Its output is over 500V! (unloaded) That is WAY too high for a CDI unit! Loading alone does NOT bring the voltage down to the desired value AND its output changes with load changes! So, its output needs to be REGULATED.

 

There are basically two ways to do this. One is to regulate the bias to the two driver transistors, the other is to regulate the input voltage to the unit. I have tried both. When regulating the bias, both transistors need to be heath sinked since they are no longer turned on fully and so they run hot. I found regulating the input voltage to be a lot better option.

Since this design is based on this particular CFL inverter (or rather, its transformer), everyone who intends to duplicate this design will face the same practical ‘problem’. My circuit and pcb layout for this CDI system is built around this transformer.

 

I have actually bought a large number of these inverters. (there is no point designing pcb’s for just a few units). I strip these units, discard the original (round) circuit board and transfer the components to my pcb.

 

I found this to be by FAR the easiest and cheapest way to obtain the desired DC – DC converter! In any case, even if I choose a custom designed transformer, duplicators would still have no choice but obtaining THAT particular transformer.

In case this is not acceptable to some of you, you are on your own and you have to “roll your own” design!

Needless to say, I will sell completed units and perhaps kits, too.

Regulating the output was relatively easy. However, during extensive testing I discovered that in case of certain possible fault conditions (more on this later) the DC – DC converter draws excessive currents which over heaths the inverter transformer and destroys the driver transistors.

Therefore, I have added a fairly complex protection circuit which I developed/designed. It gives full protection!

Detailed CDI circuit description

Let’s start with the CFL inverter described above. While the manufacturer/supplier does not offer any kind of description (they hardly ever do!), it is easy enough to figure out how it works. (it is not important) All I want to say is that it is a clever, simple design which seems to be very efficient and works well. It runs at about 100kHz.

Looking at my   the components used from this inverter are: TF1, L1, Q7, Q8, C9, R26 and R27.

The output is full wave rectified by HV ultra-fast diodes (UF4007) D3, D4, D5 and D6. C10 (10n, 630V) is filtering the HV output.

 

This 330V (or 300V) output is connected to one side of capacitor C12 (1uF, 400V). The other side of C12 is connected to the “hot” side of the ignition coil primary. The other side of the coil is grounded. (as usual) In other words, the other side of capacitor C12 is grounded through the ignition coil.

The capacitor’s stored energy is discharged into the coil as follows: SCR1 (TYN816) is connected between the high voltage output and ground. Its Gate is triggered by transistor Q9 (BC547), wired as an emitter follower.

 

When ignition pulses (from the ignition module) are fed to its base (through R28, 1k), it turns on and its emitter supplies the trigger current from the 12V supply rail, through collector resistor R29 (390 ohms). When Q9 is turned on, some current also flows through R30 (470 ohms) in addition to the SCR’ gate trigger current. The low value of R30 and C11 (0.1uF) shunt spurious transients which could cause false triggering.

When SCR1 is triggered, it becomes (for all practical purposes) a short circuit. Through this ‘short circuit’ the capacitors energy is discharged to ground.

The discharge current also flows through the ignition coil’s primary which is transformed (1:100) and creates a secondary voltage well in excess of 20.000V! (depending on the type of coil used).

Regulating the inverter’s output voltage

As I have stated above, I choose to regulate the inverter’s input voltage.

It is a standard ‘series pass’, OP amp based regulator. (IC1B, LM324) It drives Q5 (BC547) and Q6 (TIP31B) in a Darlington configuration.

 

The HV (300 – 330V) output is attenuated by R23 (680k) and R24 (15k) and connected to pin 6, IC1B’s inverting (-) input. It is also connected to the emitter of Q6, which is the output of the regulator. The non-inverting input is connected to the slider of P1 (10k), which, with R25 (3k3) forms a voltage divider to restrict the adjustment range of P1.

 

This, in turn, limits the high voltage at the output of the inverter. Since OP amp IC1B is a “virtual earth” amplifier, its inverting (-) and non- inverting (+) inputs are practically at the same voltage. Therefore, the voltage appearing at pin 6 (regulator’s output) will be the same as the voltage on pin 5, the slider of P1.

 

The voltage divider R21 (990k) and R22 (10k)/C6 (10n) provide a convenient low voltage, low impedance test point TP2 for adjustment/test purposes of the HV output.

CDI Protection circuits

 Please look at the circuit diagram. You will see that C12 (the 1uF capacitor which supplies the spark energy) is connected between the HV output and, through the ignition coil’s primary winding, to ground.

Now, consider what happens if C12 goes short circuit. (In other words, there is a short placed on the DC – DC converter’s output!)

 

The poor thing will try to supply power into a short circuit! (with plenty of current but almost NO voltage!) As a result, current draw from the power supply will increase dramatically. This causes the driver transistors AND the transformer to over heath, until something gives!

Consider now an open circuited C12. There is NO stored energy to discharge. Then there is NO charge time to consider. Remember that SCR1 (TYN816) is also directly across the HV output.

Normally, when SCR1 fires to discharge the energy in C12, the current flowing through SCR1 is eventually reduced below its ‘holding current’ so it ‘drops out’.

 

(stops conducting) When there is NO capacitor, (same as an open circuit capacitor) there is NO periodic discharge, the DC – DC converter is continuously supplying current so SCR1 will NOT drop out. This means an INDEFINITE ‘short circuit’ (in form of a continuously conducting SCR) across the HV output.

Further, the EXACT same condition will also occur if the wire to the ignition coil’s primary is broken or disconnected. (or if the coil goes open circuit)

IC1A is used to detect the presence/absence of the HV. R1 (12k) and R2 (680k) form a voltage divider between the HV output and ground.

 

The voltage developed across R1 is a fraction of the HV and it is fed to the non-inverting (+) input pin 3 of IC1A, used here as a comparator.

 

A fixed voltage (approx. 2.9V) is applied to the inverting (-) input (pin 2) from the voltage divider R4 (68k) and R5 (22k) which is filtered by C2 (10uF). Under normal operating conditions the output of this comparator is HIGH.

Should the voltage on the non-inverting input (pin 3), which represents the HV output, decrease significantly (below the voltage on pin 2, the inverting input) or disappear completely due to a fault condition, the output of the comparator IC1A (pin 1) will go LOW.

 

This output is connected to the Gates of DMOS transistors Q2 and Q4 (2N7000), through R6 and R15, respectively (both 100 ohms). (Note: for this application bipolar transistors are un-satisfactory. Their off-state collector-emitter leakage is too high.)

IC1C and IC1D are wired as square wave oscillators. Since the normally conducting Q2 and Q4 are connected between the inverting (-) inputs and ground, both oscillators are DISABLED. (C3 – 3.3uF and C4 – 1uF are the timing capacitors) In the (sampling) oscillator IC1C, the charge/discharge times are separated.

 

This gives (with the component values shown) approx. 2 seconds HIGH and about 25 seconds LOW signal at IC1C’s output (pin 8).

 

Through D2 (4148) and R13 (10k) this signal is fed to the base of Q3 (BC547) which is used as an inverter. Q1 (2N7000) is connected between ground and the non-inverting (+) input (pin 5) of voltage regulator IC1B. Its Gate is connected to the collector of Q3

 

. When Q3 is conducting, Q1 is NOT. (NO Gate voltage – it is shorted by Q3) When Q3 is NOT conducting, Q1 gets its Gate drive from Q3’s collector through R14 (10k). Q1 is now conducting, bringing the voltage on the non-inverting input (pin 5) of the regulator (IC1B) to 0V. As a result, the regulator’s output is also zero.

NO INPUT VOLTAGE to the inverter means NO current draw. In other words, this is NOT a current limiter. The inverter is completely OFF, drawing NO current.

As long as the fault condition exists, oscillator IC1C continues its 2/25 seconds ON/OFF routine. Its output is inverted by Q3 which then turns Q1 OFF/ON. So, when Q1 is OFF, the regulator (and the inverter) is working normally. When Q1 is ON (conducting), the regulator (and thus the inverter) is cut off. In this condition, there is NO current draw.

In layman’s terms, this is what happens: Due to a fault condition, (capacitor C12 open or short circuit, ignition coil primary open circuit, wire to the coil broken or disconnected…) oscillator IC1C is ENABLED and is producing a 2 seconds ON and 25 seconds OFF signal. This signal ENABLES/DISABLES the regulator supplying the inverter.

 

The 2 seconds ENABLE signal is for SAMPLING. Is the fault still there? Yes. OK, cut power OFF for the next 25 seconds. Then, SAMPLE again (for 2 seconds) to check if the fault has been cleared or not. If not, this oscillator will continue its 2/25 second routine INDEFINITELY.

Since power is applied for only 2 seconds (SAMPLING) and there is NO power for 25 seconds, no harm is done! If the fault has been cleared, the oscillator is disabled and the regulator/inverter once again works normally.

Since indicator LED1 for the sampling oscillator is only turned ON for 2 seconds (and OFF for 25 seconds) there is a need for continuous indication of a fault condition.

That is the role of oscillator IC1D. Under normal working conditions it is disabled by Q4 (2N7000) which is shorting its timing capacitor C4 (1uF). It is wired as a square wave oscillator which, under fault conditions, flashes LED2 ON/OFF about 3 times per second (~3Hz).

Under normal operating conditions, the inverter’s regulated supply voltage output is around 6.4V. Current draw is about 0.5A.

 

With a short circuit placed on the output, the current rises to around 1 - 1.2A. Should the regulator transistor Q6 go open circuit, the inverter simply stops operating.

 

However, should it decide to go short circuit, (unlikely, due to the moderate current draw of only 0.5A) the full rail voltage of 12V would be applied to the inverter and its output would rise to over 500V! This, in itself, should not be a problem, except for two things:

 

1. Capacitor C12 (rated at 400V) might go short circuit (which would activate the protection circuit described above). 2. The ignition coil would produce excessive secondary voltage which could cause internal insulation break down.

Testing and adjustment

A number of TP’s (test points) are provided for testing and adjustment(s) purposes.

There is only ONE adjustment to be made on this pcb, to set the inverter’s output voltage to the desired value (usually somewhere between 300 – 330V depending on the ignition coil used).

Connect a voltmeter (set to 600V or 1000V range, depending on the meter) between TP3 (ground) and TP1 (HV) and disable discharge triggering TP4 by shorting it to TP3. Now adjust P1 to the desired voltage (300 – 330V) You could also use TP2 (and TP3) to adjust to 3 – 3.3V (100:1 attenuator,

 

provided mainly for oscilloscope connection to eliminate the risk of damaging its input)

The regulator’s output voltage (supplying the inverter) can be measured at TP5. For a 330V output it should be around 6.4V.

The operating temperature of the inverter transformer and its driver transistors are a very comfortable 47°C and 45°C, respectively, measured in ambient temperature of 30°C!

 

Important notice:

The control electronics described below is NOT suitable for engines with manual (pull cord) starters, UNLESS the pull cord is EXTENDED to provide MORE revolutions!

Reason: Recent physical tests of several manual start generators reveal that their pull cord starters only produce two (2) or 3 revolutions of their crankshaft.

That is only ONE (or 1.5) engine work cycle. In order to establish & stabilize the necessary waveform for proper operation, AT LEAST ONE (or more) cycle is required. During this process NO injection or ignition pulse(s) are allowed.

In other words: At least ONE engine cycle (2 crankshaft revolutions) is needed just to establish the correct waveform, WITHOUT injection or ignition pulses! Then, additional revolution(s) are necessary for starting.

Electric starters can deliver as many revolutions as needed and thus solve the ‘problem’. Needless to say, this involves a battery which will be needed anyway as a start-up supply for the electronics and generation of HHo 

Background

 , “Ignition system for small engines section ”  briefly outlines why a new ignition system is needed with HHO  as the ONLY fuel and what are the technical requirements for such an ignition system.

To start with, here are a couple of quotes from an EXCELLENT web site which briefly explains (with moving animation!) ignition technology:

“It is interesting to note that one complete engine cycle takes two revolutions but that individual valves and spark plugs only operate once in this time. Hence their timing needs to be taken from a half engine speed signal, which is the camshafts speed.”

“If the timing disk is attached to the crankshaft, there is a need in some engine configurations to have a sensor on the camshaft so that the igniter knows which ½ of the four-stroke cycle the engine is in.”

(http://www.gill.co.uk/products/digital_ignition/Introduction/6_4stroke.asp)

Gill ignition modules are designed to control naturally aspirated, turbo-charged and lean-burn engines operating on LPG, natural gas and biogas. Both the GS and GT versions are designed with the latest inductive ignition technology to provide a powerful spark with long duration, enabling complete combustion of low calorific value fuels as well as lean air/fuel mixtures.

They have been specifically designed for the stationary gas engine market, however the modules are also currently used in a wide variety of portable and industrial vehicle applications.

Most (if not all) existing small engines use a magnet mounted on the fly wheel which gives two pulses for every engine cycle. (thus generating “waste” sparks)

Electronically dividing by two would NOT solve the problem since another signal would be needed to determine which one of the two pulses we want and which one we don’t.

Only ONE sensor is needed IF it gives only ONE pulse for every ENGINE cycle. It does not matter WHERE in the engine’s cycle this pulse originates because it can be electronically ‘moved’

anywhere in the engine’s 360º (100%) cycle.

 

The obvious choice of a sensor is a ‘Hall effect’ switch.

Since modern engine blocks are non-ferrous (aluminium) alloys, the Hall switch can be placed on the outside of the engine block. For example, it can detect the position of a magnet which is fitted to the valve’s ‘rocker’ arm.

As the ‘rocker’ arm/magnet moves in and out of certain positions, the Hall switch turns on/off.

This sensor must detect the position of the cam shaft (which makes one revolution per engine cycle), NOT the crank shaft (which rotates twice for every work cycle). Looking at most small engine designs, it seems that accessing the cam shaft is easiest at the exhaust/intake valves under the valve cover.

Thus, the mechanical modification consist of fitting a small magnet to the rocker arm of the exhaust (or intake) valve but because the magnetic field is blocked by ferrous metal, if the valve cover is made of steel, it must be either replaced with a non-magnetic one (like aluminium), or, cut a hole in it which is then covered by some non-magnetic material.

[Note,  here are some images of my hall sensor construction]I used a very small magnet, around 5 mm in diameter, and fixed that to the exhaust rocker:

For a Hall sensor Part,

I used the TLE 4905 L,

Back up pdf  here

 mounted on the engine using a piece of copper tube:

Adjusted the exact position of the sensor / tube has been a few times, before I got the optimal position, such that the sensor is activated / deactivated when the valve is about half way pressed.

The finished sensor construction:

 

Surely, the above modification should be easier than making a 2:1 gearing!

Choice is to place the magnet on the EXHAUST valve’s (rocker) arm for the following reason:

 

The EXHAUST stroke is the LAST of the engine’s working cycle. From this point, everything is in the correct order. First the INTAKE stroke, during which the gas will be injected at the correct time (and duration, determining the speed)

 

Now the pulses from the Hall switch can be correctly delayed by the required amounts for the Injection and Ignition functions. Following the INTAKE stroke is COMPRESSION, at the end of which IGNITION takes place.

As the pulses from this single Hall switch usually do not occur exactly where we want them, they need to be ‘moved’ (delayed) to deliver the desired injection/ignition functions at the correct times.

First, some engine basics:

Engine speed is expressed as RPM (Revolutions Per Minute). In electronics, however, the unit of time is SECOND. Since there is 60 seconds in a minute, (it was the last time I checked! (() the engine’s RPM is divided by 60 to get the engine’s ‘frequency’, in Hz.

Example; an engine running at 3600 RPM (crankshaft speed), divided by two is 1800 engine cycles per minute. Divide that by 60 gives 30Hz. It means that the spark plug is going to fire 30 times per second.

One thing is CERTAIN.

IF the fuel is GTNT ONLY and when there is a sufficient volume of it mixed with air in the cylinder and a spark occurs, it WILL explode, regardless of correct or incorrect timing!!!

Due to this fact, irrespective of all other design changes, when starting the engine, injection/ignition pulses MUST be inhibited for at least ONE cycle in order to establish and stabilize the saw tooth waveform.

In practical terms this means that the engine would start on the 2nd (or 3rd ) revolution of cam shaft (4th or 6th revolution of crank shaft) which would NOT be within the firs pull of the cord!! (for manual start) For this reason electric start is needed. (or pull cord extended!)

Once again: Since 1 Hz is 2 crank shaft revolutions, the RPM is 120. 2 Hz is 4 revolutions and thus 240 RPM.

Principle of operation:

1. The first task is to convert the pulse train from the Hall switch to ‘frequency’. [(so that ONE ‘period’ is ONE engine cycle. (4 stroke)] This can be done by either digital or analog means. (or a combination of the two) Both have advantages and disadvantages. While the modern “buzz” word is “microprocessor”, there is no need for it here with its complex software programming. Basically, the two main issues with any design are: simplicity and cost. My choice for this design is analog. It is a relatively simple and low cost design.

2. The engine’s frequency is transformed into a LINEAR saw tooth waveform. This saw tooth is fed to a comparator.

 

The output is a variable duty cycle square wave. [This is the basic principle of the analog Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)]

3. The rising or falling edge of this variable duty cycle square wave is used to trigger the desired ignition/injection action.

New ignition & injection control design

Close examination of my previous design revealed two problems:

1. When starting the engine, an ignition pulse was allowed to occur following the very first pulse from the Hall switch! [At least two (2) pulses are necessary to create & stabilize the desired waveform!]

 

2. Frequency-to-Voltage converters are inherently slow. When rapidly changing the frequency, large amplitude variations are unavoidable. This plays havoc with the injection & ignition timing to the point of being useless!

Note: all this occurs ONLY at very low STARTING frequencies. (1Hz – 5Hz)

First of all, I have drawn a chart I named “4 stroke engine timing cycle”:

BACK UP HERE 

Not only does it aid the understanding of a 4 stroke engine’s work cycle and the injection & ignition process but it also serves as an essential reference for the initial set up of the injection & ignition timing circuits for the engine used.

Like the previous design, this new design is also based on a Hall switch, activated by a magnet attached to the exhaust (or intake) valve’s rocker arm.(Thus, the pulses always occur at the same “degree” of the engine’s work cycle.)

The control circuit’s basic principle of operation also remains the same: creating a linear saw tooth waveform from the pulses supplied by the Hall switch.

However, the new design DOES NOT USE a Frequency to Voltage converter (F/V) which has an inherently slow response. Further, the method of generating the linear saw tooth voltage has also changed. Instead of fast charging the timing capacitor and slowly discharging it with a constant current source, (producing a falling slope) it is now continuously charged by a simple constant current source, producing a rising slope.

The main reason for this change was/is to obtain a Ground (0V) referenced waveform which is much easier to manipulate. (for example in a feed back loop)

The new circuit (pcb.pdfPCB) operates as follows:

The pulse train from the Hall switch, IC1* (on its own pcb), is fed to monostable IC1A’s rising edge input A (pin 4, 4538 dual monostable)

 

The output pulse width is set to 100µs by R3 (10k) and C3 (10n). These pulses (from pin 6) are fed to the falling edge B input of IC1B (pin 11), the ‘clock’ input (pin 14) of IC6 (4017) and also to the ‘logic’ input (pin 8) of track & hold IC5 (LF398) through attenuator resistors R20 (3k3) and R21 (1k).

Monostable IC1B’ (4538-2) output pulse width (100µs, at pin 10) is set by R4 (10k) and C4 (10n). These pulses operate switch Q2 (2N7000) which discharges timing capacitor C5 (0.1µ). Continuously charging C5 is a simple constant current source, comprising of Q1 (BC327), D1 (4148), R6 (3k3) and R7 (270k). (Charging time constant is determined by C5 and R7.)

The resulting linear saw tooth is buffered by IC2 (TL071), wired as a unity gain voltage follower. The buffered saw tooth (output of IC2) is fed to both inputs of IC3 (TL071), a Voltage Controlled Amplifier (VCA) through R8 and R9 (both 10k).

 

The ‘gain’ control elements are P-channel JFETs Q3 and Q4 (both J174), operating in their ‘ohmic’ (linear) region, their D-S voltage being restricted to a few tens of milli volts by the inputs of the OP amp. (IC3)

Since the VCA (IC3) is inverting, the next stage, IC4A (TL072-1) is another inverting amplifier with unity gain (-1). Its output signal (from pin 1) is now of correct polarity and is fed to comparator/error amplifier IC4B’ (TL072-2) inverting (-) input (pin 6). Its non-inverting (+) input (pin 5) is fed with an adjustable voltage from the voltage divider R16 (8k2), P1 (10k) and R17 (22k). These component values give a range of approx. 6.56 – 9.55V (for 12V supply) and 2.73 – 3.98V (for 5V supply) for setting the saw tooth amplitude to the desired level.

The error signal (from the output of IC4B, pin 7) is fed, through R19 (10K) to the input (pin 3) of track/hold IC5 (LF398). At the peak value of the saw tooth, IC5 is put in the Hold mode for the duration of the following cycle. This DC voltage is fed from its output (pin 5) to the gate of Q3 (J174) JFET.

It is this voltage which sets the gain of the VCA.

Thus, the VCA (IC3), the unity gain inverter (IC4A), the comparator/error amplifier (IC4B) and the track/hold stage (IC5) form a feed-back loop to correct the amplitude of the waveform as the frequency changes.

 

[Suppose the starting frequency is 1Hz and the saw tooth P-P amplitude is set to 8V. (3.33V for 5V supply) When the frequency has increased to 2Hz, the amplitude has DECREASED to 4V (1.66V for 5V supply) and needs to be amplified (x2) to bring it to 8V. (3.33V for 5V supply) At 4Hz, the amplitude is 2V (0.83V for 5V supply) and it is amplified by 4 to bring it to 8V (3.33V for 5V supply) and so on….)

Unlike the inherently slow Frequency to Voltage converter, this method stabilizes the waveform amplitude after only ONE completed cycle.

 

This is due to the fact that amplifier action is FAST! (device propagation delays are measured in micro or nano seconds!)

The amplitude AND polarity corrected saw tooth waveform from IC4A’ output (pin 1 & TP9) is fed, through R36 (10k), to the inverting (-) input (pin 2) of another comparator, IC9A (LM393-1). A voltage divider is formed by R34 (22k), P4 (10K) and R35 (33k) and the non-inverting (+) input (pin 3) of IC9A is connected to the wiper of P4 (10k), thus:

P1 is the IGNITION PULSE POSITION adjustment.

The above component values of the voltage divider allow a wide range of adjustment. However, to suit different engine designs, the values of R34 & R35 may be altered.

Since we now have a rising ramp, the voltage on the inverting (-) input (pin 2) of the comparator IC9A (LM393-1) remains below the set point on the inverting (+) input (pin 3). As a result, the output of IC9A stays HIGH until the set point is reached.

 

When that happens, the output snaps LOW. This falling edge pulse triggers monostable IC8A (pin 5).

The output pulse width is set to 100µs by R38 (10k) and C17 (10n) and is available from pin 6 (Q output of IC8A).

These 100µs pulses are fed to the base of ‘emitter follower’ ignition trigger transistor Q9 (BC 547) through R39 (2k2) and R28 (1k). Q9’ collector resistor R29 (390 ohms) supplies the necessary trigger current for SCR1 (TYN816). R30 (470 ohms) & C11 (0.1µF) help to reduce/eliminate spurious noise pulses from the SCR’s gate. (Note: Q9, R28, R29, R30, C11, SCR1 and capacitors C12A,B,C are on the CDI module)

Capacitors C12A,B,C (1µF 400V) are continuously charged to 330V by a DC-DC converter. The stored energy is then dumped into the primary winding of the ignition coil. Thus, it is a CDI (Capacitor Discharge Ignition) system.

In practice, ALL generators are run at a CONSTANT speed somewhere in the range of 2000 to 4000RPM (depending on design). (Remember, this ignition system is designed specifically for ONE cylinder generators.)

4. Auto RPM Circuits 1&2

 

Fuel injection 

 

 IF you are to use GTNT ONLY for ANY engine, you are dealing with Gas

How Ever we can Make Nano Bubble GTNT Saturated Fuel Water 

Both Work

Existing injectors are made for liquid fuel.

They are NOT suitable for gas!

That is why there are injectors made for gas.

They are very different from liquid fuel injectors.

Using them is   different  

 

 Why are Gas Injectors manufactured?  

The answer is simple and it is not even "motor trade" specific, just general physics.

It is fuel VOLUME delivering capacity!

You all know that liquid fuel is highly "concentrated"

(for the lack of a better word) as far as energy goes.

You also know (or should know!) that the same fuel (meaning: containing the same energy) in VAPOR form occupies a space which is ENORMOUS, compared to its liquid VOLUME 

Since we are dealing with water as a fuel here,

perhaps we can use water as an example here, for the purpose of illustrating my point.

So, let's say we have 1 liter of water. It contains a certain amount of energy.

(whatever it is, it is not important for this explanation)

Now we "condition" this 1 liter of water to be in GAS form (GTNT Gas ).

Its VOLUME???

Ordinarily, it will be around 1860 – 2000 liters.

Should you be so clever (or `lucky') to make 100% mono atomic gases,

its VOLUME would be close to 4000 liters!!!

Enter the INJECTOR.

When we "burn" water "as is", the injector has to to only deliver MINUSCULE amount

of fine mist (still liquid).

Just like the injectors for petrol (gasoline). OK?

If we use the Gas Form of  (GTNT) is no longer in liquid form!

Now, do any of you still believe that ordinary injectors made for liquid fuels will be able to deliver that HUGE volume of gas to the engine??? 

I could `test' your knowledge further or simply `stir' you by asking if you know the relationship between volume and the pressures required to deliver  

Gas vs Liquid fuels

I will give you some figures (numbers) 

Say you wish to increase the VOLUME of fuel delivered by the injector.

You want to DOUBLE the volume.

 

What is the required pressure to do that?

Double? NO. It is 4 times.

========================

Do you want 3 times the original volume?

The pressure is now 9 times!

========================

Do you want to go to 4 times of the original volume?

The pressure is now 16 times of what you started with!

========================

Should you want 10 times more fuel injected,

the pressure you need will be 100 times the original pressure!!

========================

As you can see, mathematically, the pressure required is the volume increase squared.

 

 Specific Practical Numbers 

One of the generators I have has a 420cc engine.

(rated output is 7 kW, continuous)

 

For the ease of calculations, let's say it needs

12 L/min. of HydrOxy to run.

 

Dividing 12 liters by 60 (seconds), we get 0.2 L/second.

However, since the fuel INTAKE is only ¼ of the engine's work cycle, that 0.2 L gas

must be injected in ¼ of a second 

In reality, this means that the poor injector would have to deliver

that 0.2 L gas at the rate of 0.8 L/second

You are welcome to try it and please come back to report your results,

particularly the PRESSURE you had to use 

Needless to say, all that fuel is injected in many cycles, depending on engine RPM.

(An engine running at 3600 RPM has 1800 work cycles per minute.

That is 30 injections/ignition s per second.)

 

Do you still feel like using fuel injectors made for liquid fuel for Gtnt Gas injection under ENORMOUS pressure?

Do you REALLY understand the SAFETY implications of this?

You may be forgetting that this ENORMOUS pressure also means ENORMOUS dangers!

IMO, such a set-up would be bordering on INSANITY  No kidding 

I, for one, would NOT want to be around such a set up

One slight mishap and you are DEAD! Period.

If you have ever experimented with `blowing up' GTNT Gas,

you will have an idea of the POWER in that gas.

Otherwise, you really don't have a clue of what you are dealing with!!

Remember, I DID NOT SAY that injectors made for liquid fuel can not inject gas.

Indeed they can and will (shortly) describe a delightful little experiment I made all those years ago!

All I said was (and I repeat it): "They are NOT suitable for gas!"

Buy Some INjectors

I urge you all to pick up an injector for liquid fuel and one made for gas.

Have a good, hard look at them.

What do you see?

One has a TINY (like a `pin hole') "spray" orifice and the other has an opening of several millimeters diameter 

As an example of a gas injector, I have a `JET 21', made by Poliauto in Italy.

Its output port ID is 5.8mm

But its typical working pressure is rated at only 70 kPa rel.

(10.15 PSI) and the maximum is 120 kPa rel. (17.4 PSI).

As for the various types of injection used in car engines,

 At present, virtually all generators are equipped with conventional, carburetor engines.

 " After the flash arrestor then you'll have a rail with set pressure filled with GTNT Gas.

At the end of the rail attach a stock injector controlled by the ECU or for testing, a simple PWM."

 

Fitment Of Injector to 1 kw to 10 Kw engines

My choice is to remove the carburetor, make a simple air intake manifold (if necessary) and fit the gas injector to the manifold, as close to the cylinder inlet as practical.

Thus, the gas is injected into the intake manifold when the intake valve is open and by the time it closes at the end of the intake stroke, it is all sucked into the cylinder, together with the air so there is NO gas left in the manifold during the other ¾ of the cycle.

I consider this to be important because IF there is a backfire,

there is NO gas to explode in the inlet manifold

We install Manifold and Crank Cask pressure release for letting out back Fires on large engine small not needed

ECU control.

 

I  named my control unit ECU, however, as you know, I don't use microprocessors!

Remember, with Gtnt Gas ONLY, there are only TWO parameters to be controlled:

1. Ignition timing

2. Injection

In short; when we get to the larger engines (cars), the first thing we have to do is to rip out the "computer" and install our own system, incorporating electronic injection as well.

(Perhaps another option could be to completely re-program the `computer',

provided that one could obtain the original programming software from the manufacturer, which,

I would say, is HIGHLY unlikely!) = WELCOME TO HYDRUINO LOL

I am in favor of electronic injection

(but ONLY for GTNT) for

Three reasons:

1. Power Loss Gain I reason that if we allow GTNT Gas to flow continuously, some of it may   

                                  disappear during the other ¾ of the engine's work cycle.

                                  (the intake stroke is only ¼ cycle)

2. BACKFIRE  If GTNT Gas is ALWAYS present in the intake manifold, we may risk

                         a damaging back fire.

3. Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) makes RPM control possible.

Now to that experiment with the liquid fuel injector I mentioned earlier:

 Anyway, I thought, what can I do with this injector?

I replaced the leaking hose and attached it to the gas output of the Voltrolysis Unit I had at the time.

However, I needed to control the gas input to it and then ignite the gas coming out.

So I quickly set up an old spark plug, ignition coil and a `transistor' electronic ignition.

I also set up an electronic injection control an a `bread board'.

[I just found the old, hand drawn diagram the other day.

The ignition was set to approx. 1.3 Hz – 18.5 Hz.

Injection pulse width was adjustable from about 100 µs to 2.1 ms.

 

There was also an adjustable delay (few milliseconds) stage to allow the injector

to close before the spark arrived]

I simply placed the injector flat on the bench top and also the spark plug, facing the output orifice of the injector. The distance between them was about 30 mm.

I also placed a plastic "spaghetti" (about 15 mm diameter) between the injector and the spark plug. That was to prevent the gas rising (and disappearing! ) too quickly!

Thus, what I had was effectively an open ended `cylinder'.

One end had the injector and the other end the spark plug, both entering the "spaghetti" openings slightly.

I turned on the Voltrolysis Unit  built up the pressure to 15 PSI and then turned the power off.

First, I set the `speed' control to minimum, powered up the injection/ignition electronics and

the show started I tell you. It was MUSIC to my ears!

It started firing about once a second and as I was turning up the `speed', it was like rapidly repeating miniature EXPLOSIONS!

It sounded like a miniature "lawn mower" 

I truly enjoyed playing with it and demonstrated it to many who were interested!

After a couple weeks I got the idea to have it in a CLOSED (aluminium) cylinder,

so I made one on the lathe.

  

GTNT Gas recombination is an electron migration process where water is used as

a Zero Point Energy proxy. 

 

Note

if you don't change the timing the engine runs like a pig, back fires, can bend valves and can burn hole in piston. Plus it requires a HUGE amount of gas just to barely run. When properly tuned and blank spark sorted all these issues vanish. 

From Townsville. [about 2000km from here (Melbourne)]

  He played with it for a while, exploded a bit of the gas, etc., to get the feel of it all. He gained respect for the power of Hydroxy. Next, he made a larger, 7 cell unit, following the same design principles.

It produces 3 L/min. of Hydroxy. Not having a proper power supply, he powered the cell from a small alternator, driven by a small electric motor. At that stage, he did not measure the power input to the cell. He mentioned that he had the impression that only the two outer cells were producing gas. I said that didn’t make sense and asked him to make some measurements. I told him to remove the top of the cell, power it up and measure the voltage between the plates for each cell. One by one.

This test returned the following results:

When powered from a (car) battery, the voltage was the same across each pair of plates (cells), 1.72V which adds up to 12.04V (which was the battery voltage under load) Then, he powered the cell from the alternator and measured 1.95V across each cell which adds up to 13.65V. He borrowed a DC clamp meter and measured the current to be 40A.

 

That means he was putting 13.65 x 40 = 546W into the cell to produce 3 L/min. of gas.

Then he had the idea to try to run a lawn mower on it. (He invited a friend who is also interested in this technology, to give him a hand.)

They started the lawn mower on petrol and ran the carburetor dry and the engine stopped. Then they fed the Hydroxy in and it ran beautifully for the about 2 minutes when they experienced a back fire which promptly destroyed his ‘bubbler’!

 

No-one was hurt and the only ‘casualty’ was the poor bubbler which was made of Acrylic! (That is a NO-NO! – UNLESS it is designed with a pop-off top! He also made the mistake of allowing about 4” – which is WAY too much - of gas on the top of the water!)

George made the comment that there was more gas than was needed to run that lawn mower. (the gas pressure was building up)

 

There was NO adjustment or modifications to the engine.

He does not know the size (cubic capacity) but according to a professional friend of mine who repairs LARGE number of lawn mowers, most of them are no less than 148cc. According to him, engines of that size are normally rated at around 3.5 horse power. Now, considering the above figures it is clear that so-called ‘over unity’ has already been achieved as the engine produces more power than it needs to make its own fuel!

 

George then wanted to make a 120 cell unit so I emailed him my drawings. He followed them ‘to the letter’, according to him, did not deviate ‘one iota’ from the drawings!

 

When he ‘fired it up’ for the first time, he instantly blew all his mains power 15A fuses! He then phoned me and I advised him to fill the cell only partially. In order to not to blow his fuses, he could only fill the cell about 40mm from the bottom.

 

Even then, after about 2-3 minutes, his circuit breakers (which I advised him to use) were tripping again! However, before the circuit breakers tripped, he made some measurements. The gas (HHO) was pouring out at a rate of 36 L/minute!! Sure, the power input was something like 3.6kW (240Vx15A) but hey, that is about 100 W/L per minute!

In short: he had NO means of controlling the power input since my AC phase control circuit design was not ready at that time! [As a temporary supply, I made him a box with a 25A bridge rectifier (on a heath sink) and a 20A moving coil meter in it. (you can see this box in some of the pictures)]